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kimenyi.jpg
Le Prof. Alexandre Kimenyi

UMWAKA MUSHYA MUHIRE WA 2003



Ishyaka AMAHORO ryifuriye abayoboke baryo n'abanyarwanda bose umwaka mushya
muhire uzatubera uw'amata n'ubuki, ukatuzanira ibyiza byose twifuza, igihugu
kikagira umutekano, amahoro agasasagara mu Rwanda, ubwumvikane n'ubwiyunge
bukaganza muri bene Gihanga,  tukabana neza n'ibihugu bidukikije, tukagira
ubuzima bwiza, inzara ikava mu gihugu, maze abanyarwanda bakarushaho guhuguka.

Ibi byifuzo kugirango tubigereho bizaterwa natwe ubwacu abanyarwanda.
Umunyarwanda wese yari akwiye guhaguruka agakoresha imbaraga ze zose
n'ubwenge bwe bwose agatanga umusanzu we ngo twubake urwamubyaye.

U Rwanda rwanyuze mu makuba menshi, igihe cyari cyigeze rero narwo
rugatangira rukabaho neza nta kiruhungabanya. Ishyaka AMAHORO ryanejejwe
n'uko intambara yo muri Kongo yarangiye, none abana barwo bakaba
baragarutse mu gihugu cyabo. Ishyaka AMAHORO ryasohoye itangazo rishima 
iki gikorwa cyiza cy'uko Leta ya Kigali na Leta ya Kinshasa zemeye
kwubahiriza imishyikirano ya Pretoria.Leta zombi zigomba gukora iyo bwabaga
kugirango ibihugu byongere bibane kivandimwe nta kwishishanya nta kuryaryana.
Abana b'u Rwanda bemeye kwitanga batahutse ku rugamba Leta igomba gukora uko
ishoboye kugirango nabo batangire neza ubuzima bushya.

Itegeko-nshinga

Muri uyu mwaka hateganijwe itora rya kamarampaka  ryemeza itegeko-nshinga
Leta yateguye rikaba ari ryo rizagenga igihugu mu myaka iri imbere.
Turasaba abanyarwanda bose kwiga iyo mbanzirizamushinga, kubera ko hari
byinshi ishyaka AMAHORO rinenga. Twatanze ibitekerezo byacu twerekana
ibyo tugaya, ibikwiye guhindurwa, ibikwiye kuvanwaho no kwongerwaho. Ririya
tegekonshinga ritowe nk'uko Leta yabyemeje ntabwo byazana amahoro mu
gihugu. Urugero muri bimwe tugaya ni uko igihugu cyagendera kuri Leta
itegekwa na Perezida ufite ububasha bukabije (Regime
Presidentiel/Presidential System). Ibi bigomba guhindurwa kubera ko abo
ba perezida ari bo hafi ya kenshi basenya igihugu, bakakigira nk'isambu
yabo. Turasaba rero abanyarwanda bose gutanga ibitekerezo byabo,
hakajyaho itegeko-nshinga umunyarwanda wese yumva ashimye.

Isunikwa ry'amatora y'abategetsi

Leta yateganije ko itegeko-nshinga nirimara kwemezwa, hazaherako haba
amatora y'ingeri zose. Ishyaka AMAHORO ribona amatora yari akwiye
gusunikwa. Amatora ntashobora kuba igihe imfungwa za politiki
zitararekurwa. Amatora ntacyo yamara igihe hakiri abantu bafungiwe
ibitekerezo byabo. Mbere ko amatora aba Leta igomba kwemera amashyaka ari
hanze kuza kwiyandikisha mu gihugu n'andi ari mu gihugu nayo agomba
kwemerwa, maze n'abanyarwanda babone umwanya uhagije wo kwiga porogaramu
z'ayo mashyaka maze igihe cy'itora bazashobore kwitoranyiriza abo bashaka
kubera ko banyuzwe n'intego m'imigambi yabo.
Leta igomba kureka amashyaka akiyandikisha vuba kandi nayo ikayaha
umwanya ukwiriye wo kwamamaza porogaramu zayo n'abakandika bayo kandi
ikanayareka nayo agakoresha radiyo, televiziyo n'ibinyamateka bya Leta
kugirango abanyarwanda bamenye ibikerezo byayo.Kugirango amatora azagire
akamaro, abaturage abashimishe ni uko amashyaka atari ku butegetsi abanza
agakora yisanzuye.  

Inkingi zubatse ishyaka AMAHORO

Ishyaka AMAHORO ryubatswe n'inkingi eshanu: (a) ubutegetsi bushingiye ku
Inteko ishinga amategeko (Parlementary System/Systeme Parlementaire ,
(b) Demokarasi nsaranganya-butegetsi (Consociative Democracy/Democratie
Consociative), (c) Ubutabera nyubaka-gihugu (Restorative Justice/Justice
Restorative), (d) Ubwigenge bw'uturere (Decentralization), (e) ukwishyira
ukizana kw'abaturarwanda (people's soveignty/la souverainete du peuple).

Igituma ishyaka AMAHORO ribona ko ubutegetsi bwiza ari ubushingiye ku
Inteko ishinga amategeko ni ukubera ko Leta zishingiye ku butegetsi bwa
perezida bufite ububasha bukaze ari bwo bwagiye bworeka ibihugu byinshi
byo muri Afrika. Aba baperezida iyo bakosheje ntawe utinyuka
kubavuguruza, ubigerageje arabizira. Bene izo Leta ni zo zatumye tugira
abaperezida nka Mobutu, Idi Amin, Bokassa, Habyarimana n'abandi Abo
baperezida ni bo bica bakanakiza kandi ingabo z'igihugu ntabwo ziba
zikiri iz'igihugu, zihinduka izabo ba perezida nyine, bakazikoresha
bakurikije inyungu yabo aho kureba iy'igihugu.
Ni yo mpamvu  ibihugu bifite demokarasi nyakuri hafi ya byose byahisemo
kugendera ku butegetsi bushingiye ku Nteko ishinga amategeko. Ibihugu byose
by'i Bulayi muvanyemo Ubufaransa ni yo bugenderaho. Ibihugu bigendera kuri
demokarasi mu Aziya nabyo ni ko bitegekwa. Muri ibi bihugu byose Minisitiri
w'Intebe ni we utegeka Leta, ni nawe utorwa naho Perezida agashyirwaho
n'Inteko ishinga amategeko. Perezida cyangwa Umwami aba ari umukuru w'igihugu,
afite icyubahiro, ariko iby'ubutegetsi bw'igihugu bitamureba.  Etazuni
n'Ubufaransa ni byo byo nyine muri demokasi nyakuri bigengera ku butegetsi
bwa Perezida ufite ububasha bukaze.Ariko nabyo bifite Inteko Ishinga
Amategeko ifite ingufu zihagije zibuza Perezida gukora ibyo yishakiye.

Kugirango umunyarwanda wese yibone mu butegetsi kandi abwubahe
anabushyigikire twabonye ari ngombwa ko haba isaranganya-butegetsi
(consociative democracy). Ishyaka ritsinze ryose ntirigomba kwiharira
ubutegetsi, rigomba kuzirikana ibibazo by'amoko,  akarere n'igitsina. Byanze
bikunze, abahutu. abatutsi, abatwa, abagore n'abagabo bagomba kuboneka mu
butegetsi bwose kandi n'uturere twose tw'igihugu tukaba dufite abaduhagarariye.

Niba dushaka ko u Rwanda rugira amahoro nyakuri, hakaza umutekano, ubumwe
n'ubwiyunge bikaruka mu banyarwanda, hagomba kubaho ubutabera
nyubaka-gihugu. Ibi bivuga ko abanyarwanda bose, ari abategetsi ari na
rubanda rwa giseseka bose bangana imbere y'amategeko. Uwishe amategeko
uwo ari we wese, nko guhohotera undi, kumuvutsa ubuzima bwe, gusahura
imari y'igihugu, agomba kubihanirwa bikurije amategeko. Nta n'umwe ugomba
guhanagurwaho ibyaha kubera inyungu z'abategetsi, cyangwa izindi mpamvu.
Tubona  ari na ngombwa ko na Leta yashyiraho akanama gakurikirana
itsembabwoko ry'abatutsi n'itsembatsemba. Abo bagize amarorerwa mu
guhekura u Rwanda, ntabwo ari ngombwa ko bicwa cyangwa baborere muri gereza,
bashobora kurekurwa bagakatirwa imirimo yo gufasha abo bagiriye nabi ariko
bakamburwa uburenganzira abandi benegihugu bafite nko gutora, gutorwa no
kubona akazi ka Leta. 

Igituma na none  hari abategetsi bigira ibyigomeke ni ukubera ko
kuva ku murenge, ukarenga intara ukajya ku murwa w'igihugu, abategetsi
bose baba barashyizweho na Perezida w'igihugu.Ibi bituma abo bategetsi
aho kureba inyungu zabo bahagarariye, bagomba gushimisha uwabashyizeho
kugirango ye kubavana kuri ako kazi. Ikindi ni uko akenshi umurwa
w'igihugu  uryamira indi mijyi n'uturere twose bitewe cyane cyane n'uko
Perezida aba ari ho atuye, ibyiza byose bikaba ari ho biba. Ni ngombwa ko
ibiro bya minisiteri zose bikwirakwizwa mu turere twose kandi n'inganda zose
ntizigume i Kigali zigashyirwa mu gihugu hose. Ibi bizatuma abaturage bose
bashobora gusaranganya ibyiza byose igihugu gifite kandi bakanashobora nabo
gutanga umusanzu wabo. 


Kugirango umunyarwanda wese agire ijambo mu gihugu cye ni ngombwa ko haba
ukwishyira ukizana. Ibi bivuga ko umunyarwanda wese atanga igitekerezo
cye, abategetsi bakagitega amatwi, ntabe yabihanirwa, abifungirwe cyangwa se
abyicirwe. Icy'ingezi cyakora ni uko uburenganzira busesuye kuri
buri muntu wese bwubahirizwa. Ukwishyira ukizina bivuga ko abategetsi bakora
ibyo abaturage babatumye, babategetse, ntibakore
ibyo abaturage badashaka. Kwishyira ukizana binavuga ko abaturage
bashobora guhindura imitegekere y'igihugu igihe bashakiye, niba bashaka
gutegekwa na Perezida bashobora kubikora bakoresheje kamarampaka, niba
bashaka umwami ni cyo kimwe cyangwa ubutegetsi bw'Intego ishinga
amategeko. Abaturage kandi bafite uburenganzira bwo guhindura itegeto
iryo ari ryo ryose ndetse n'itegeko-nshigna igihe babona ko ribangamiye
inyungu zabo bakoresheje kamarampaka (constitutional amendment).

Amahoro nyakuri

Kugirango igihugu kigire amahoro nyakuri ni ngombwa ko abanyarwanda twese
tumenya ko ntawe ukwiye kujya ku butegetsi akoresheje igituza cyangwa
imbaraga. Buri wese wifuza gutekegeka agomba kwamamaza ibitekerezo bye,
abanyarwanda babishima bakaba bamutora.
Amahoro azaza igihe umunyarwanda wese akora neza akazi ke ashinzwe,
agakora nk'uwikorera. Niba umunyapolitiki, umuhinzi, umworozi, umwarimu,
umuganga, umucuruzi, umucamanza, buri wese akoze neza akazi ke igihugu
kizagira ituze, amahoro n'umutekano.
Igihe kirageze ko Leta nayo iha abaturage amahoro. U Rwanda rumaze imyaka
myinshi cyane ruri mu midugararo akenshi ikaba iterwa n'ubutegetsi:
guhohotera amako amwe n'uturere, bituruka ku butegetsi. Uburetwa,
kwamburwa amasambu n'amatungo ibyo byose byaterwaga n'ubutegetsi.
Gusoresha abaturage batagira amasambu, akazi cyangwa amatungo, ibi ni
uguhohotera abaturage. Kunaniza abacuruza,  ntibashobore gushora imari mu
gihugu, birabahombesha kandi bikabuza igihugu gutera imbere.

Ishyaka AMAHORO ryiyemeje gukora uko rishoboye ngo riteze igihugu cyacu
imbere. Rizashyira imbaraga zaryo hamwe kugirango ayo mahoro twifuza
agaragare. Rizakora n'abavukarwanda bose n'andi mashyirahamwe gushakira
umuti ibibazo igihugu gifite, kubana neza kw'abanyarwanda, kurwanya icyorezo
cya sida n'izindi ndwara zose, kwongera umusaruro w'igihugu, kwubaka amashuri
ahagize, gushakira abantu akazi, kwigisha abaturage kugira isuku ku mubiri no
mu nzu, guteza umuco wa karande imbere, n'ibindi.

Ishyaka AMAHORO ryongeye kwifuriza umunyarwanda wese umwaka mwiza utagira
uko usa. Rikaba rinifuza ko umunyarwanda wese arushako kurukunda, gukunda
abana barwo no guhaguruka akaruteza imbere. 

Umwaka mushya mwiza muhire. Tugire amahoro kandi Imana y'i Rwanda
iturinde.

Alexandre Kimenyi, Perezida

AMAHORO
People's Congress